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Item Number: 4181

Manganese Sulphate pack of 60 capsules

£10.83 Exc. VAT

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P U R E  •  T R U S T E D  •  V E G A N

+ Purest Formulas
Here at Epigenetics, the quality and purity of each ingredient is integral to our development of effective, bioavailable formulas. Our products are naturally pesticide-free and completely free from artificial fillers, additives, lubricants, binders, bulking agents and preservatives.

+ Trusted Quality
Proudly made in our UK based production facility, set in the heart of the countryside. Your trust in us matters, and as such, we adhere to the strictest GMP regulations and guidelines when producing all of our products.

+ Vegan Friendly
We respect nature and as such we do our part and only use vegan-friendly ingredients in our Manganese Sulphate.

+ Letterbox Friendly
Our capsules come in small postal packs, designed for easy, contact-free delivery. The smaller design leads to a reduced carbon footprint during the shipping process.

This product has been discontinued; we recommend our Manganese SA and Manganese Citrate capsules as an alternative.


Manganese Sulphate

Manganese is an essential mineral for human health, playing an important role in many bodily functions and antioxidant processes. It is a cofactor for many enzymes including arginase, glutamine synthetase, pyruvate carboxylase and Mn superoxide dismutase (1). Manganese aids in the formation of bones and connective tissue and assists in carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism (2). It helps form healthy blood cells and supports thyroid health (3). Manganese is also needed for the synthesis of collagen, which further supports bone health and may aid in wound healing (4).

Manganese is readily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and is found mostly in the bones, the liver, the kidneys, and pancreas (2). It is present in a wide variety of foods including whole grains, nuts, beans, pineapple, sweet potato, and spinach.

Whilst the recommended daily amount of manganese is not directly specified, women should aim for 1.8mg per day and men 2.3mg per day. The adequate Intakes for different age ranges are shown below (6).

Table 1. Adequate Intakes for Manganese (6)






1-3 years





4-8 years





9-13 years





14-18 years





19-50 years





51+ years





*Table 1 is taken from reference 6.

Epigenetics Manganese Sulphate is produced in a convenient, vegan friendly capsule. Recommended daily dose is 1 serving per day, or as directed by a healthcare practitioner.

If pregnant or breast-feeding, consult your health care practitioner before using this product. This product is not intended to be used as an alternative to a varied diet.

Manganese is not recommended for people who have liver problems (4).

As Manganese competes with Iron for absorption, individuals with iron deficiency anaemia should also avoid manganese supplementation (4).

Manganese toxicity can occur when you consume large amounts of manganese over a long period (from supplement or food sources). In this case, you may experience symptoms such as headache, insomnia, restlessness, tremors, and irritability. If these symptoms persist for more than two weeks, you should seek professional medical advice.


Ingredient Amount per serving ECRDA* %DV*
Manganese (from Manganese Sulphate) 5 mg 250%* 250%*

* Percent Daily Reference Intakes (RI) are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.

INGREDIENTS: Microcrystalline cellulose, Vegetable capsule (Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose), Manganese Sulphate.

Suitable for vegans

Read More

Manganese is an essential trace mineral, needed in small amounts by the body. It is a cofactor in many enzymes such as arginase, glutamine synthetase, phosphoenolpyruvate decarboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase, and manganese superoxide dismutase (1). These are all very important enzymes in the body and are heavily involved with metabolic processes and help with the formation of bone (2). In addition to vitamin K, research suggests that manganese may also play a role in the blood clotting process (5).

Manganese is absorbed in the small intestine however absorption rates of dietary manganese are low (2). That which is absorbed is concentrated in the mitochondria of the pituitary gland, pancreas, liver, kidney, and bone. 90% of this absorbed manganese is excreted into the gut via bile and a little in the urine (6).

Whilst rare, insufficient intake of manganese has been shown to have a variety of health implications. Studies suggest that bone deterioration, lower fertility rates and changes to protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism can all be linked to prolonged manganese deficiency (7). Similarly, certain health conditions such as epilepsy, osteoporosis, arthritis, premenstrual syndrome, and diabetes are associated with low manganese levels (8).

Bone Health-

Manganese is an essential part of the construction of bone, cartilage, and collagen. It is particularly important for post-menopausal women and others at increased risk of osteoporosis (9). Many studies have found that women with osteoporosis tend to have lower levels of serum manganese than those without the disease (10). Furthermore, manganese may help reduce spinal bone loss in older women when combined with calcium, zinc, and copper (11). This highlights the fact that manganese plays a crucial role in the synthesis of cartilage and bone collagen and is thereby essential in maintaining bone health.


Manganese helps to regulate blood sugar levels, making it an essential mineral for people with diabetes. It helps to activate the hexokinase enzyme that causes an increase of glucose in the cells and so deficiency may result in hypoglycaemic episodes. Researchers have found that people who consume higher amounts of manganese have a lower risk for developing type 2 diabetes (12, 13, 14). This suggests that manganese is involved in the production of insulin and can have a positive effect in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

Strong antioxidant-

Manganese is essential for superoxide dismutase (SOD), an enzyme that is potentially one of the most important antioxidants in your body (15). This is because it helps convert free radicals into smaller molecules, preventing cellular damage and fighting oxidative stress (16). This emphasises the role manganese can play in ageing, cancer and other health conditions caused by excess free radicals in the body (17).

Below is a list of enzymes that use manganese as a cofactor:

Superoxide dismutase (SOD)- known as SOD2 Superoxide dismutase 2, mitochondrial (SOD2), also known as manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) (18).

Acetylcholineesterase- a cholinergic enzyme primarily found at postsynaptic neuromuscular junctions (19).

Arginase- a manganese metalloenzyme that catalyses the conversion of L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea (20).

CDP-Diacylglycerolinositol transferase- catalyses the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) as well as PtdIns:inositol exchange reaction (21)

Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase-key regulatory enzyme in the mevalonate pathway (22).

Glycosyltransferase- catalyse the formation of the glycosidic linkage to form a glycoside (23).

Glyoxylate carboligase- catalyses the ligation of two molecules of glyoxylate to form tartronate semialdehyde (TSA) and carbon dioxide (24).

Isocitrate dehydrogenase- play important roles in cellular metabolism (25)

Malic enzyme- catalyses the reversible oxidative decarboxylation of malate to pyruvate (26).

Pyruvate carboxylase­­- converts pyruvate to oxaloacetate in the TCA cycle and is needed for gluconeogenesis.

Serine transhydroxymethylase­– helps convert glycine into serine.

6-Phosphogluonate dehydrogenase- produces NADPH by converting 6-phospho D-gluconolactone to D-ribulose 5-phosphate in the pentose phosphate pathways (PPP) (27).

It is important to note that excess levels of manganese in the body can be harmful and cause toxicity. To date, no evidence suggests manganese toxicity from excess dietary intake however manganese toxicity can occur in people who are exposed to high amounts of manganese through their work, such as welders and miners. Similarly, manganese toxicity can occur in people who drink water contaminated with too much manganese (6). These individuals should consult their healthcare practitioner before taking supplements to avoid manganism (28).

Product Information

Packaging: 60 capsules

Recommended daily dose, 1 serving taken with a meal.

Serving size: 1 capsule, Servings per container: 60

Store in a cool dry place out of reach and sight of children. Once opened, consume within 6 months.



  1. Aschner, M., & Erikson, K. (2017). Manganese. Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.)8(3), 520–521. Available at:
  1. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2001.
  1. Zhou, Q., Xue, S., Zhang, L., & Chen, G. (2022). Trace elements and the thyroid. Frontiers in endocrinology13, 904889.
  2. 10 evidence-based benefits of manganese, Healthline (2018). Healthline Media. Available at: (Accessed: January 7, 2023).
  3. Aschner JL, Aschner M. Nutritional aspects of manganese homeostasis. Mol Aspects Med 2005;26:353-62. 
  1. National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements: Manganese Fact Sheet for Health Professionals. Accessed 05/01/2023.
  1. Avila, D. S., Puntel, R. L., & Aschner, M. (2013). Manganese in health and disease. Metal ions in life sciences13, 199–227. Available at:
  2. Manganese (2023) Mount Sinai Health System. Available at: (Accessed: January 4, 2023).
  3. Ji, M.-xia and Yu, Q. (2015) “Primary osteoporosis in postmenopausal women,” Maturitas, 82(3), p. 315.
  4. Rondanelli, M. et al. (2021) “Essentiality of manganese for Bone Health: An overview and update,” Natural Product Communications, 16(5). Available at:×211016649
  5. Strause, L. et al. (1994) “Spinal Bone loss in postmenopausal women supplemented with calcium and trace minerals,” The Journal of Nutrition, 124(7), pp. 1060–1064. Available at:
  6. Du, S. et al. (2018) “Dietary manganese and type 2 diabetes mellitus: Two prospective cohort studies in China,” Diabetologia, 61(9), pp. 1985–1995. Available at:
  7. Gong, J.H. et al. (2020) “Dietary manganese, plasma markers of inflammation, and the development of type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women: Findings from the Women’s Health initiative,” Diabetes Care, 43(6), pp. 1344–1351. Available at:
  8. . Eshak, E.S. et al. (2021) “Manganese intake from foods and beverages is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes,” Maturitas, 143, pp. 127–131. Available at:
  9. Holley, A.K. et al. (2011) “Manganese superoxide dismutase: Guardian of the powerhouse,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 12(10), pp. 7114–7162. Available at:
  10. Li, C., & Zhou, H. M. (2011). The role of manganese superoxide dismutase in inflammation defense. Enzyme research2011, 387176. Available at:
  11. Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, et al. Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology2007; 39(1):44-84.
  12. Becuwe P, Ennen M, Klotz R, Barbieux C, Grandemange S (2014). “Manganese superoxide dismutase in breast cancer: from molecular mechanisms of gene regulation to biological and clinical significance”Free Radical Biology & Medicine77: 139–151.
  13. Trang A, Khandhar PB. Physiology, Acetylcholinesterase (2022). In: StatPearls (Internet). Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available at:
  14. Caldwell, R. B., Toque, H. A., Narayanan, S. P., & Caldwell, R. W. (2015). Arginase: an old enzyme with new tricks. Trends in pharmacological sciences36(6), 395–405.
  15. Uniprot (2023). Available at: (Accessed: January 7, 2023).
  16. Kavanagh, K.L. et al. (2006) “The molecular mechanism of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates as antiosteoporosis drugs,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103(20), pp. 7829–7834. Available at:
  17. Glycosyltransferases (2023) CAZypedia. Available at: (Accessed: January 7, 2023).
  18. Zhang, J. and Liu, Y. (2017) “Theoretical study of the catalytic mechanism of glyoxylate carboligase and its mutant V51E,” Theoretical Chemistry Accounts, 136(4). Available at:
  19. Al-Khallaf H. (2017). Isocitrate dehydrogenases in physiology and cancer: biochemical and molecular insight. Cell & bioscience7, 37.
  20. Zhu, B.-H. et al. (2018) “The role of malic enzyme on promoting total lipid and fatty acid production in phaeodactylum tricornutum,” Frontiers in Plant Science, 9. Available at:
  21. InterPro. (2023) Available at: (Accessed: January 7, 2023).
  22. Evans GR, Masullo LN. Manganese Toxicity. 2022 Jul 12. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan–. PMID: 32809738.


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