Molybdenum is a mineral that plays an important role in the body. It is a trace element, meaning it is needed in very small amounts for proper bodily function. Molybdenum is a structural constituent of molybdopterin, which is a cofactor synthesised in the body and required for the function of sulphite oxidase, xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component (mARC) (1). These enzymes are responsible for the body’s ability to process and help break down various compounds such as purines and sulphites, proteins, alcohol, drugs, and toxins (2). Molybdenum also helps with energy production, cell protection, and waste excretion. It does this by breaking down certain amino acids and activating antioxidants, which help to protect cells from damage (3).
The average adult absorbs anywhere between 40-100% of dietary molybdenum (1) and it gets stored in the liver, kidneys, adrenal glands and bone where the kidneys will remove excess amounts if not needed (2). It can be found in legumes, whole grains and beef liver and is available as a dietary supplement.
In the UK there is currently no recommended daily intake for molybdenum in supplement form. Please talk to your healthcare practitioner to ensure the correct dosage for you.
If pregnant or breastfeeding, please consult your healthcare practitioner before using this product.
Epigenetics Molybdenum is produced in a convenient, vegan friendly capsule. Recommended daily dose is 1 serving per day taken with a meal, or as directed by a healthcare practitioner. This product is not intended to be used as an alternative to a varied diet.
||Amount per serving
|(from Potassium molybdate)
* Percent Daily Reference Intakes (RI) are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.
INGREDIENTS: Purified water, Citric acid, Potassium molybdate.
Suitable for vegans
Molybdenum is a trace mineral that plays an important role in numerous enzymes within the body. It is a structural constituent of molybdopterin which is a cofactor to four enzymes that help the body breakdown sulphur containing amino acids, purines, and pyrimidines as well as drugs, alcohol, and toxins (1).
Sulphite oxidase – This is an important enzyme required to make sulphates for the synthesis of active sulphur (PAPs).
Xanthine oxidase – This is known as one of the most potent generators of peroxynitrite that, in physiological conditions, is formed by macrophages to kill pathogenic protozoa, worms and some fungi.
Aldehyde oxidase – This is necessary for the detoxification of inhaled and ingested aldehydes and is involved (along with niacin) in the metabolism of alcohol.
Mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component (mARC) – This is required to metabolise drugs and toxins.
Molybdenum is present in soil and in the water used for irrigation (1). The amount of molybdenum found in food therefore depends on the soil content. It is typically found in legumes and whole grains however can also be found in animal products such as milk, cheese, chicken, and beef if the animal eats the molybdenum rich plants. Once consumed, molybdenum is absorbed and distributed around the body with the highest concentrations found in the liver and kidneys (1). The kidneys help regulate molybdenum levels with any excess excreted in urine or faeces.
While molybdenum deficiency is very rare, a case was reported in a child who had a genetic sulphite oxidase deficiency and was not able to form this enzyme. This resulted in disability, seizures, opisthotonus, and lens dislocation (4). Similarly, those receiving intravenous nutrition without molybdenum can result in irregular heartbeat in adults (2).
Molybdenum is not known to interact with any medications.
Sulphites can cause allergy-like reactions and are found naturally in some foods. One-third of Americans are allergic to sulphites, which can lead to asthma, gastrointestinal problems, and skin irritations (5). Some foods, such as peanuts, eggs, back tea, vinegar, and fermented foods, contain natural sulphites while even healthy vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, ginger, onions, chives, and leeks contain sulphites as well.
Sulphite sensitivity can cause a variety of symptoms, including hives, itchiness, upset stomach, diarrhoea, vomiting, trouble swallowing, flushing, dizziness, drop in blood pressure, trouble breathing, and snoring. Sulphites can also inhibit the production of positive gut flora bacteria and deplete glutathione levels, which aid in the metabolism of alcohol.
Sulphites occur naturally in all wines to some extent (6) and are commonly added to wine as preservatives to prevent spoilage and oxidation at several stages of the winemaking process (7). Organic wines are not necessarily sulphite-free, but generally have lower amounts. In general, white wine contains more sulphites than red wines, and sweeter wines contain more sulphites than drier ones (8). In the US and EU, regulations stipulate maximum sulphite contents for wines (9, 10), and wines containing over 10mg/l sulphites mut bear a label stating “contains sulphites” regardless of whether they occur naturally or are added during winemaking (11). Likewise, the WHO recommends an intake of no more than 70mcg per kilo of body weight (5). This means that an average sized man can safely drink less than a third of a bottle of conventional white wine per day.
Sulphite oxidase is an enzyme found in the mitochondria of eukaryotes that converts sulphite to sulphate. The active site of sulphite oxidase contains a molybdopterin cofactor, and it produces free radicals that act as a natural antifungal when strictly controlled. To reduce the need for added sulphites in wine, alternative methods have been studied, such as high-pressure treatment, natural plant extracts, resveratrol, pulsed electric fields, ultrasound, other chemical treatments, and ozone (12).
Ozone treatment of grapes after harvest has been identified as a promising alternative to using SO2 in winemaking. This method has been shown not to affect the sugars, titratable acidity, or pH of the grapes, but it has increased anthocyanins and skin tannins. Therefore, ozone treatment might not only reduce the populations of microbial organisms but also improve the overall taste and quality of the finished wines (12). Polyphenol extracts from plants, such as eucalyptus leaves and almond skins, have been shown to be effective in slowing or stopping the growth of lactic acid bacteria in wine. In laboratory studies, natural plant polyphenols have been as effective as SO2 in protecting wine against bacterial infection, and they have performed even better when used in conjunction with lower levels of SO2 (13).
In a pilot study, researchers aimed to replace added sulphites in wine by using resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenol in wine and antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Although more research is needed to determine whether added resveratrol can protect wine in the same way as added sulphites over time, the initial results of this pilot study are promising. It is worth noting that sulphite occur naturally in grapes and wine, and the sulphites used in winemaking are added sulphites (14).
Overall alternative methods for protecting wine from bacterial infections without using added sulphites have been explored, and some show promise for improving the taste and quality of wine.
Packaging: 100 ml
Store in a cool place out of reach and sight of children. Once opened, consume within 6 months.