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Item Number: 433

Vitamin B12 (Hydroxycobalamin) 100ml


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P U R E  •  T R U S T E D  •  V E G A N

+ Purest Formulas
Here at Epigenetics, the quality and purity of each ingredient is integral to our development of effective, bioavailable formulas. Our products are naturally pesticide-free and completely free from artificial fillers, additives, lubricants, binders, bulking agents and preservatives.

+ Trusted Quality
Proudly made in our UK based production facility, set in the heart of the countryside. Your trust in us matters, and as such, we adhere to the strictest GMP regulations and guidelines when producing all of our products.

+ Vegan Friendly
We respect nature and as such we do our part and only use vegan-friendly ingredients in our Hydroxycobalamin.

+ Reusable Miron Violet Glass
Buying for a long supply? Products stored in standard clear or amber glass are prone to degrade over time. We only use Miron Violet Glass for its premium protection against harmful sunlight and unseen UV rays. You can also keep and reuse the bottle.



Hydroxycobalamin is a naturally occurring form of vitamin B12 that is produced by specific microorganisms that is present in the body. This variant constitutes nearly 50% of the total vitamin B12 found in our blood and is one of the most abundant forms of the vitamin in natural foods. Within the body, hydroxycobalamin is converted into the two bioactive coenzyme forms of B12 – methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin – which are the only forms of the vitamin directly utilisable by the body. While hydroxycobalamin itself is not a bioactive coenzyme form of B12 and requires conversion, it has several advantageous properties that distinguish it from other B12 forms, rendering it a potentially valuable choice for B12 supplementation (1).

Hydroxycobalamin has a prolonged and uniform circulation in the bloodstream due to its superior binding to transport molecules, resulting in an ideal depot effect that replenishes the body’s B12 stores and compensates for increased demand. Additionally, hydroxycobalamin has detoxifying properties and acts as an exceptional cyanide and nitric oxide radical scavenger, making it useful for treating smoke poisoning and preventing nitrosative stress-related diseases (1).

In the UK, the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) for vitamin B12 is 75 micrograms/day for men and 60 micrograms/day for women. While the levels vary depending on age, the British Nutrition Foundation suggestions can be found in table 1 (2).

Table 1. Recommended Nutrient Intakes for vitamin B12 (2)

Age Male Female Pregnancy Lactation
1-3 years 0.5µg/d 0.5µg/d
4-6 years 0.8µg/d 0.8µg/d
7-10 years 1.0µg/d 1.0µg/d
11-14 years 1.2µg/d 1.2µg/d
15-18 years 1.5µg/d 1.5µg/d
19-50 years 1.5µg/d 1.5µg/d * +0.5µg/d
50+ years 1.5µg/d 1.5µg/d

*No Increase

Certain groups of individuals are at a higher risk of developing vitamin B12 deficiency. Infants born to vegan mothers and individuals following a vegetarian diet may not consume adequate amounts of vitamin B12 through their diet, leading to a higher risk of deficiency. Those who have undergone gastrointestinal surgery or have gastrointestinal disorders, such as Crohn’s disease or coeliac disease, may have difficulty absorbing vitamin B12, resulting in a higher risk of deficiency. Individuals with pernicious anaemia, an autoimmune disorder that affects the intrinsic factor needed for vitamin B12 absorption, are also at risk for deficiency. Additionally, older adults may experience a decline in the ability to absorb vitamin B12, potentially leading to deficiency. It is important for individuals in these high-risk groups to monitor their vitamin B12 intake and consult with a healthcare professional if they suspect deficiency or have concerns about their dietary intake (3).

Individuals in high-risk groups who develop a vitamin B12 deficiency may experience various symptoms. These symptoms may include megaloblastic anaemia, which is characterised by larger than normal red blood cells and a smaller than normal amount due to insufficient vitamin B12 intake or poor absorption. Pernicious anaemia, a type of megaloblastic anaemia caused by a lack of intrinsic factor, may also occur. Other symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency can include fatigue, weakness, nerve damage resulting in numbness and tingling in the hands and legs, memory loss, confusion, dementia, depression, and even seizures (4).

If pregnant or breastfeeding, or taking certain medications, please consult your healthcare practitioner before use.

Epigenetics Hydroxycobalamin is produced in a convenient, vegan friendly capsule. Recommended daily dose is 1 serving per day taken with a meal, or as directed by a healthcare practitioner. This product is not intended to be used as an alternative to a varied diet.

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Hydroxycobalamin has the ability to act as an antidote for cyanide poisoning, which occurs due to the binding of the cyanide to the cytochrome c oxidase, a terminal complex in the electron transport chain. This binding ultimately causes the inhibition of ATP production and cellular oxygen utilisation, resulting in a blockage of cellular respiration and rapid death. However, hydroxycobalamin, which contains cobalt compounds, can detoxify cyanide by intercepting it before it can hinder cellular respiration. This process quickly forms cyanocobalamin, which the kidneys then eliminate through urine. Therefore, hydroxycobalamin can prevent the fatal effects of cyanide poisoning by binding to and removing cyanide from tissues, ultimately restoring proper cellular respiration, and preventing death (5).

Vitamin B12 is a vital nutrient for red blood cell formation, and low levels of this vitamin can impair the development of healthy red blood cells. In cases of vitamin B12 deficiency, red blood cells become larger and typically oval-shaped, which hinders their movement from the bone marrow into the bloodstream. This can lead to megaloblastic anaemia, a condition in which the body doesn’t have enough red blood cells to transport oxygen to vital organs. As a result, symptoms like fatigue and weakness may develop. Therefore, it’s important to maintain adequate levels of vitamin B12 to support healthy red blood cell formation and prevent anaemia (6).

Adequate levels of vitamin B12 are crucial during pregnancy to prevent major birth defects. Research has shown that the proper development of a foetus’s brain and nervous system is dependent on sufficient levels of vitamin B12 from the mother. Insufficient levels of vitamin B12 during early pregnancy may increase the risk of birth defects, particularly neural tube defects. In addition, maternal vitamin B12 deficiency may lead to premature birth or miscarriage. An earlier study indicated that pregnant females with B12 levels below 250 mg/dL were three times more likely to give birth to a child with birth defects compared to those with adequate levels. For those with B12 levels below 150 mg/d, the risk of birth defects was five times higher than those with levels above 400 mg/dL (6).

Macular degeneration is a debilitating eye disease that primarily affects central vision. Recent research suggests that maintaining adequate levels of vitamin B12 in the body may help prevent age-related macular degeneration by reducing the levels of homocysteine, an amino acid found in the bloodstream. Elevated homocysteine levels have been associated with a higher risk of developing macular degeneration. In a 2009 study involving over 5000 females aged 40 or older, those who received vitamin B12 supplements, along with folic acid and vitamin B6, for seven years, had a lower risk of developing macular degeneration compared to the placebo group. The risk reduction for the more severe types of the condition was particularly significant, with a 41% decrease observed. However, further research is necessary to fully elucidate the precise role of vitamin B12 in promoting vision health and preventing macular degeneration (6).

Vitamin B12 is a vital nutrient that plays a crucial role in maintaining the health of neurons in the brain. When neurons in the brain begin to deteriorate, it can lead to brain atrophy, which is associated with memory loss and dementia. In a randomised trial, older adults with early-stage dementia were given vitamin B12 supplements to lower their blood homocysteine levels. The results showed that those who received vitamin B12 supplements experienced a slower rate of cognitive and clinical decline. Moreover, research suggests that low levels of vitamin B12, even within normal range, can contribute to poor memory performance. Therefore, ensuring adequate levels of vitamin B12 is crucial for maintaining optimal brain function and reducing the risk of memory loss and dementia (7).

The consumption of vitamin B12 may have a positive impact on an individual’s mood. The precise mechanisms by which vitamin B12 affects mood is not yet fully understood, but it is known to be crucial in the synthesis and metabolism of serotonin. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that plays a significant role in regulating mood. Insufficient levels of vitamin B12 can lead to decreased serotonin production, resulting in a depressed mood. In a study involving individuals with depression and low-normal levels of vitamin B12, those who were treated with both antidepressants and vitamin B12 were more likely to experience an improvement in their depressive symptoms than those who received only antidepressants. A comprehensive review revealed that vitamin B12 deficiency was associated with a higher risk of depression, particularly in older females. Therefore, it may be beneficial to ensure adequate vitamin B12 intake as a means of improving mood and alleviating depressive symptoms (6).

Vitamin B12 deficiency can be caused by a variety of factors, including malabsorption of the vitamin from food, lack of intrinsic factor (typically seen in cases of pernicious anaemia), surgical procedures in the gastrointestinal tract, prolonged use of certain medications such as metformin or proton pump inhibitors and dietary deficiencies. Individuals with difficulty absorbing vitamin B12 from food tends to have less severe deficiencies than those with pernicious anaemia, as they can still absorb free vitamin B12 normally. Additionally, severe vitamin B12 deficiency can be caused by congenital conditions such as hereditary intrinsic factor defects and congenital vitamin B12 malabsorption (known as Imerslund-Gräsbeck disease). It is important to identify the underlying cause of vitamin B12 deficiency in order to properly manage and treat the condition (3).

Certain medications may increase the risk of cobalamin deficiency in patients. Metformin, a commonly prescribed medication for type 2 diabetes, has been associated with an increased risk of cobalamin deficiency in some patients. In addition, the use of proton pump inhibitors or histamine 2 receptor blockers (such as Zantac or Tagamet) may lead to reduced B12 absorption and subsequent deficiency. Women using hormonal birth control methods, such as oral contraception or DMPA, have also been found to have lower levels of B12. Awareness of the potential risk of drug induced B12 deficiency can aid in the timely diagnosis and management of this condition, especially in high-risk patient populations (8).


Ingredient Amount per serving ECRDA* %DV*
Vitamin B12 670 mcg 26,800%* 11,170%*
(as Hydroxycobalamin)

* Percent Daily Reference Intakes (RI) are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.

INGREDIENTS: Purified water, Citric acid, Hydroxycobalamin.

Suitable for vegans

Product Information

Packaging: 100ml

Recommended daily dose, 10 drops taken with breakfast.

Serving size: 10 drops, Servings per container: 133

Store in a cool dry place out of reach and sight of children. Once opened, consume within 6 months.



  1. (2023) Hydroxocobalamin – long-lasting vitamin B12. Available at: (Accessed: April 10, 2023).
  2. – British Nutrition Foundation (2023). Available at: (Accessed: April 10, 2023).
  3. Office of dietary supplements – vitamin B12 (2023) NIH Office of Dietary Supplements. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Available at: (Accessed: April 10, 2023).
  4. Vitamin B12 (2023) The Nutrition Source. Available at: (Accessed: April 10, 2023).
  5. Ahangar, E.R. and Annamaraju, P. (2023) Hydroxocobalamin [Online]. Available at:
  6. Berkheiser, K. (2022) 9 health benefits of Vitamin B12, based on science, Healthline. Healthline Media. Available at: (Accessed: April 10, 2023).
  7. Vitamin B12: Health benefits, safety information, dosage, and more (2023) WebMD. WebMD. Available at: Accessed: April 10, 2023).
  8. Ristic, A. (2021) 10 vitamin B12 benefits + foods & deficiency, SelfDecode Supplements. Available at: (Accessed: April 6, 2023).


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